African pear (fever)
Pestis africana suum is a highly contagious, acute infectious disease that is characterized by hot, hemorrhagic diathesis, dystrophic and necrotic changes in various organs. Cirrhosis is more common in adult pigs, covered with dark reddish-colored spots and bruises, mucous, vaginal, anus and conjugate mucous membranes are cyanotic, in some cases they are bleeding. In the absence of the virus, the virus is collected in the lymph nodes and damages the lymphatic cells rich cells, liver, spleen, lungs, bone marrow. Disease is useful for wild and domestic pigs of all ages and varieties.
Disease is caused by filtration virus, belongs to the family of iridovirus, which is different from the pigs' viral infection and its immunological properties and characterized by high virulence. The virus is resistant to drying, freezing and dying, frozen blood and serum levels for more than 5 years, in meat and bone marrow, at 150 to 80 days in urine, 60 days in the urine, and in the soil the virus keeps 190 days.
The source of the disease is the disease and the infected worm pigs. In the natural conditions, swine infection occurs during contact with a healthy animal. Mainly the animal is infected with alimentary path (infected pig food and non-food products), food wastes, as well as airborne damaged skin and virus traps. The source of infection is the buildings in which the pigs, slaughterhouse, enterprise, meat processing equipment - tools, transport, clothing and others. The virus can move writers, mites, and various animals, birds, humans, and rugs to provide mechanical carriers.
Significant peculiarity of African plague is rapid progression and high lethality (98-100%). Depending on the quality and velocity of the pathological process, select the disease of the disease, acute, subtle, chronic and latent forms. The incubation period lasts from 3 to 15 days during natural dislocation. Disease occurs with a sudden temperature of the body temperature (40,5-42,5), then depression, loss of appetite, weakness, ear tissue, nose mirror, redness of the abdomen, abdomen and the lower part of the breast, cyanosis, nose, the bloodstream , Diarrhea. The pigs die in 2-3 days after the body temperature. Occasionally, the animal is dying suddenly, without the clinical signs of the disease, except for the hazards. The surviving animals remain viruses. The latent form of African plague is marked in African wild boar that can remain virus-free throughout life. That is precisely because of the emergence of African plague and the emergence of permanent natural plants. The diagnosis is based on complex epizootological data, clinical signs, pathological anatomical changes and laboratory investigations.
Pig African plague is one of the most serious transbound diseases in high risk of lethality and severe socio-economic outcomes. It quickly and unexpectedly spreads all over the world and there is no way to treat it or vaccine against him. Since there is no vaccine against the disease, antibodies to pigs can underscore their exposure to natural infections.
Combating measures After diagnosis of pig African trauma: farm, region, region is proved to be unsatisfactory and statutory quarantine. All the pigs in the epizootic (epidemic) basin spray with bloodless method. Dead and dead pigs, defective, food preserves, tar and care items are rotating and shaking at least 2 meters deep. Preventive-quarantine measures are regulated by the Resolution of the Government of Georgia №348 14.07.2015. (Rules for Implementation of Prophylactic-Quarantine Measures against Animal Diseases).
The African pearl of the pig was first registered in 1903 on the African continent by Khatcheon and Stokman, and in 1921 Kenya Montgomery had an African pearl of the pigs officially studied and described. Montagomer has confirmed the immunological difference of the pigeonal African pediatric virus from the classic swine plague. He also studied the mechanism of transmission of the disease and predicted that the African Phoenix (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) and parasites (Ornithodoros moubata) represent an evolutionary natural reservoir of the African pest in the African continent. The disease was then registered in other African continent countries - Angola, Zambia, Congo, Senegal, Malawi, Mozambique, Cameroon, Nigeria. In Madagascar, the virus is raging since 1997-1998, and in Mauritius the infection spread in 2007. Clearly, the swine flu virus in the African continent is a threat to the spread of infection in other regions.
It is noteworthy that in the majority of countries where pigs have been infected with infected poultry and wild pigs, food staples and the ornithodoros group ticks.
n 1957 the disease was brought from the Angolan Republic in Portugal, and in 1960 the disease was recovered and spread in the Spanish territory. These states remain in the African distress for 30 years. The disease from the Iberian Peninsula spread to neighboring countries: France (1964; 1967; 1974), Malta (1978), Belgium (1985), Netherlands (1986). In Italy, the disease was first discovered in 1967, again in 1978-1984, after which the island of Sardinia was formed as a second hub of the natural disaster. At the end of 1999, the disease recovered in Portugal, but this time it was soon to be overcome.
African plague of pigs was discovered in Cuba (1971-1980), Brazil (1978-1979), Haiti (1978-1980), Dominican Republic (1978-1980). The spread of disease in these countries has been associated with colonial countries (Angola, Mozambique). The removal of the disease in these countries could only result in mass destruction of pigs.
African pearl of the pig has been registered in the former Soviet Union in the 70s of the last century in Odessa district and in Moldova. All swords of pigs were destroyed not only in diseases of the disease but in the 30-kilometer radius.
The disease in Georgia was registered in March (April-April) and soon spread to the entire country. According to the International Epidemiological Bureau, the pigs in Africa have been brought into the heart of South African countries (Mozambique, Madagascar, Zambia) based on the genetic type. Presumably the virus has been introduced as a result of improper use of meat and meat products that are obtained on marine ships.
In Armenia - the disease spread in August-September 2007 in Tavush and Lore districts. In Azerbaijan - the disease spread in 2008 in Gabal, Sumgait, Astari and Ganja districts. The disease in the Russian territory was revealed in November 2007. In 2007-2010 African plague was registered in 11 regions and 2 federal districts on Russian territory.
According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (OIE), the pigs are currently in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania), Poland, Ukraine and Russia (Peninsula). Table 2 presents the number of epidemiological epidemics of pigs African plague in domestic and wild pigs in 2010-2016.
The epidemic (epidemic) situation that exists today is a serious threat to European countries. Taking into account the transboundary risk of epizootic (epidemic) risk, the situation in the region shows the possibility of increased risk and the spread of dangerous viruses in not only neighboring countries but in more distant European countries.
Exposure to swine African plague is in nonemptive zones for the catastrophic pigmentation field for the following reasons:
- High mortality;
- Total ban on pigeon production on import-import;
- Large expenditures on the prevention and elimination of disease incidence;
- Formation of natural kary.
We think that the relevant service of our country should be especially dangerous infectious diseases risk risk analysis (risk detection, assessment, management, exchange and dissemination of information), which recommends the World Health Organization (OIE). The goal of risk analysis is to determine what is the cause of the disease / cause; By whatever way it is available; How quickly and widely; How dangerous (what can bring harm); By what means is it possible to restrict or eliminate its spread? What resources are required for the implementation of special measures? In the diagnostic procedures and rules of biosafety, the international standards established on the basis of scientific data are provided. It is important to make these assessments based on the objective review and analysis of all existing data and facts and the results available to all interested parties (including the public).
We should remember that risks remain unchanged. They are altering with factors such as the evolution of epidemiological epidemiological diseases and the spread of the world, as well as the development of new diseases. Risk analysis should be considered not as a single measure, but as an event that needs to be reviewed and updated regularly.
The Terrestrial Animal Health Code (OIE) determines that the country can be considered a poverty-free country when the African pearl of pigs has not been observed in the country over the previous three years. This period is reduced to 12 months for previously infected countries, where liquidation measures have already been implemented and confirmed that no signs of disease in domestic or wild boar have been observed. However, it is recommended to obtain convincing proofs and provide accurate information for trade partners and neighboring countries to confirm the status of a free-range zone.
Here we have tried to briefly describe a highly dangerous transboundary disease characterized by a rapid spread trend. In the natural conditions of swine African plague and spread in new territories, the ability to adapt to the evolution of the disease and the adaptation of different conditions. In order to prevent the spread of infection, it is necessary that pig producers at all levels of pig production should make no effort to improve the biosafety conditions on the farm. It is only possible to control such a disease, such as a pig's African plague (fever).